1. The new, independent Africa: A long way from modern civilization.

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/rga/index.php?action=ajax&rs=GDMgetPage&rsargs[]=1962-08-03TimeMagazineTHENEWINDEPENDENTAFRICAALongWayfromModernCivilization.pdf&rsargs[]=0
THENEW,INDEPENDENTAFRICA:ALongWayfromModernCivilizationFriday,Aug.03,1962(extracts-RwandaandBurundipartonly)SINCE1956,morethan100millionAfricanshavewontheirindependence.IntheU.N.Assembly,theycarryconsiderableweight.Theirattitudesareconsideredpartof"worldopinion,"theirallegianceiseagerlysoughtbyEastandWest,andtheirnewnationhoodiswidelycelebratedasprogress.Yetbyanymeasurement,materialorspiritual,mostofthenewAfricastillisalong,heartbreakingdistanceawayfrommoderncivilization.InNyasalandlastweek,someoftheworld'sleadingeconomistsdiscussedAfricaneconomicandsocialproblems.Amongthegreatestobstacles,theyagreed,areabysmalshortagesofcapitalandhumanskills.ThoughmostcountriesarefriendlytotheWest,theirdeterminationtoberidofcolonialor"neocolonial"influenceincreasestheirdifficulties.Moreover,mostarenot"nations,"butuneasygroupingsofdiversepeoples,withlittleunderstandingofdemocracyhencetheneedfeltforstrong,one-partygovernments.TIMEheresurveys24independentnewstatesandthreenear-independentterritoriesbelowtheSaharawherestatisticshardlyexist.Nonetheless,whatdatacanbegatheredillustrateabattlefarbiggerthanthefightforindependence:abattletoestablishaminimumoforder,educationandmaterialwellbeing.CulturePoliticalMaturityProblems&Prospects19.CONGO,Leopoldville(Bel.)Pop.:17,000,000.Size:905,000sq.mi.Literacy:20%.Schoolattendance:50%.Collegegraduates:35.Christians:Nominal47%.Ininterior,populationisalmosttotallyilliterate;sorcery,ritualkillings,tribalwarfarepersist.Lessthan10%areseriousChristians;504priests,121nongraduatedoctorsserveoneofAfrica'sbiggestpopulations.Politicalparties:9.Voters:40%.BlackAfrica'smostheadlinedcountryhasalmosttotalignoranceofWestern-stylegovernment.OnlyminuteproportionofpeopleevenawareCongoisnation.Politicalpartiesareinexperiencedandonstrictlytriballines.Westward-leaningCyrilleAdoulaisablestPremieryet,butstillinsecureinnearlybankruptcountry.Exports:Normallycobalt,copper,diamonds,palmoil,bananas.Percapitaincome:$90.U.S.aid(1961):$13.1million.U.N.forcedefeatedCommunisteffortstoinfiltrateCongo,buthasfailedtoendcopper-richKatanga'ssecessionaftertwoyears.Evenifonce-prosperouscountryisreunited,itwilltakeyearstocreateanation.20.RWANDA21.BURUNDI(Bel.)Pop.:3,000,000.Pop.:2,500,000.Size:11,000sq.mi.Size:10,000sq.mi.Literacy:25%.Schoolattendance:30%.Collegegraduates:60plus(excludingpriests).Christians:over50%.Fewerthan2%attendsecondaryschools.Savagecustomsprevalent;nativesveneratecattle.Politicalparties:Rwanda,4;Burundi,3.Voters:Rwanda,75%;Burundi,52%.BelgiansrestrainedpoliticalawarenessbeforegrantingindependencelastJuly,whenterritorysplitintotwostates.Rwanda'smainpoliticalissueisbitterconflictbetweengiantWatusiandBahutumajority,whoweretheirserfs.TribalismnotacuteinBurundi,butpeopleunreadyforself-rule.Exports:Coffee.Percapitaincome:$35-50.U.S.aid:$7,500,000.Bothcountriesareheavilyoverpopulated,heavilydependentonforeignaid.RwandalookstoneighboringUgandafortradeoutlet.Rwandaisrepublicwithmoderateausterityregime.BurundiismonarchywithmoderateregimeundermerryMwami(King)MwambutsaIV.
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