The Arusha Accords and the Failure of International Intervention in Rwanda

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8TheArushaAccordsandtheFailureofInternationalInterventioninRwandaJoelStettenheimOverviewTHEPERIODFOLLOWINGanagreementonendinginternalconflictcanoftenbeevenbloodierandmoredangerousthantheperiodbeforetheagreement.TheArushaPeaceAccords,whichostensiblyendedtheongoingconflictinRwandabetweenanexiledTutsiguerrillagroup(theRwandesePatrioticFront)andtheHutugovernmentofPresidentJuvenalHabyarimana,areatragicexampleofanegotiatedagreementfailingmiserablyinitsimplementation.AlmostimmediatelyfollowingthesignatureoftheArushaAccords,HutuextremistswhofeltleftoutoftheprocessandthreatenedbytheresultsorganizedahorrificmassacreofTutsiandHutumoderates.Between800,000andonemillionpeoplediedbetweenAprilandJuly1994.Ratherthanfocusingontheperiodofthemassacre,thischapterexamineshowthemediationoftheArushaAccordssetthestageforwhatmanyhavedescribedasgenocide.ThechapteralsohighlightstheunsuccessfulmediationattemptsleadinguptotheArushaAccords;thesuccessfulmediationoftheArushaAccordsbyahighlyskilledTanzaniandiplomat,AmiMpungwe;andtheviolencefollowingthebreakdownoftheAccordsafterthesuspiciousdeathofPresidentHabyarimana.Theroleofregionalorganizationsandotherinternationalactorsinthepre-ArushamediationsandtheArushaprocessitselfisanalyzed.Theskillofthemediatorinpacingthenegotiations,focusingthesubstanceofthenegotiations,andusingconnectionswiththeinternationalcommunity213
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