A testimony of Gilbert Masengo Rutayisire

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View People 
  •  Rutayisire Masengo Gilbert 
  •  Rutayisire Osuald 
  •  Abijuru Guillome 
  •  Gakirage (priest) 
  •  Nkeshimana (Interahamwe) 
  •  Habyarimana Juvenal 
  •  Biregeya 
  •  Majabo (Interahamwe) 
  •  Boniface (journalist) 
  •  Murutampunzi (journalist) 
  •  Nsababere Eraste 
  •  John Peter 
  •  Modest 
  •  Gasindi 
  •  Emmanuel 
  •  Nkeshimana (mother's shooter) 
  •  Trake (mother's murderer) 
  •  Celestin (priest) 
  •  Anserme 
  •  Doninique 
  •  Muyoboke Bosco 
  •  Hategekimana (Nyarisaza) 
  •  Twaha 
  •  Mutarambirwa 
  •  Murasadonyi 
  •  Kameya 
  •  Ndengeyingoma (Inkotanyi) 
  •  Musafiri (Inkotanyi) 
  •  Nsababera Eraste (Masengo's pseudonym) 
View Places 
  •  Rugenge Sector 
  •  Nyarugenge District 
  •  Kigali 
  •  Ste Famille 
  •  Gitarama 
  •  Saint Paul 
  •  Poid Lourd 
  •  Gisozi 
  •  Kabuga 
  •  Gabiro (Interahamwe/Inyange from) 
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  •  Masengo: My name is Rutayisire Masengo Gilbert, my father's name is Rutayisire Osuald and my mother's name is Mukarukeza Agnes. We were born as three children in my family, by now we are only two left. I was born in 1970; it was in Rugenge sector, Nyarugenge district located in Kigali city. I studied primary school at Ste Famille primary school, went for high school studies in Ndera high school and I am now an undergraduate at university. I am taking social science as a course and I am in the second year almost going for the third year of university. 
  •  When I started primary school at Ste Famille, I had no idea about ethnics. Once, my primary one teacher asked me: "Which ethnic do you belong to?" I was not the only student that was asked such question; there were other students that were asked the kind of question. I finally found out that we were only two Tutsis in class. It was me and another boy called Abijuru Guillome, I remember him, he is now in Canada. 
  •  The teacher asked us: "What are yours ethnics?" I said to my teacher: "I don't know mine." The teacher said to me: "Go and ask your parents." I went home and asked mum and dad in the afternoon. They said to me: "Who asked you that question, what do they want to know?" I said to them: "I won't go to school till you give me the answer 'cause I have to respond to my teacher." They said to me: "Tell your teacher that you are a Tutsi." That is when I realized Giome Abijuru was also a Tutsi. We were more than fifty students in class. 
  •  We studied till primary eight, but other students were aware of this problem of Tutsis, us two did not care much about that. The thing which showed us that anything related to ethnics is really not good. It was in the eighth year of primary where Abijuru used to be the first of class and I could be the second or if it happens that I perform badly I could be the fifth but not beyond. 
  •  We came to sit for the primary eight national exams, and we failed both of us, only thirty students passed. The thing which caused me to think about it very much and I was even grown up enough to realize that it was unfair, is that we were given an exam with choices. I was really sure with the answers I gave. As the exam was about choices, the student whom we sat together in the exam knew I was ahead of him in class that I was more intelligent than him, and it was easy to cheat because it was an exam of choices. 
  •  He became the first in his district; it was in Gitarama I don't remember the name of his district. Unfortunately I failed. I went home very depressed because of my performance, I said to mum: "I have failed but I don't understand." She said to me: "Don't worry; you will repeat the class there is nothing we can do." My mother knew why she said such words but I could not believe that I failed when I never went beyond the fifth of the class. 
  •  Another thing is that Abijuru was always the first and this time he did not even become the second, he failed completely. It was unbelievable to me. There was an exam we sat for; it is about secondary schools that train young men to become priests. I and Abijuru, had passed it. I met a priest called Gakirage it was an afternoon and he said to me: "Masengo, did you know that you won!!?" I felt happy this time, I felt I have where to go now, unfortunately Abijuru was sent to different school, he was sent to Rwesero high school and I was sent to Ndera high school. 
  •  [It was really hard; everybody who entered CND was filmed and photographed because there were] Interahamwe in every residences of this town. There was one called Nkeshimana in our residence, I used to pass in front of him with no fear 'cause I thought he cannot kill and he is like everyone else. We used to enter CND and get out when we are done. We used to enter inside and chat with Inkotanyi [RPF] several things. 
  •  I remember one day, I was coming out of CND and the soldiers said to me: "Don't go anywhere." I said to them: "Don't worry, I am used to them." They said to me again: "It is getting dangerous out there, there is a girl who just got kidnapped and she is been taken to get killed in a military barracks." I did not care; I felt old enough and had no problem with me. I was motivated to fight for the country, so I went out. When I looked behind me I saw two young men and said to myself: "If they try something, I will run." 
  •  When I reached at the roundabout, known as MTN roundabout nowadays. A soldier jumped out of an avocado tree and fell in front of me. I realized what I was told at CND gate by the soldiers. I tried to run, at the same time I tried to stop a bus which was at the bus station. They ran after me, they realized that everybody will see what they are up for so they returned back and I said to myself: "the other soldiers were right!" 
  •  I went home, and learned a trick on how to get out of CND gates. I returned there, the same day HABYARIMANA' plane was shot down so I went out to watch a soccer match at the French cultural center. It was an African cup match, I watched the match with no problem and I was with other friends. 
  •  In the meantime, everyone started to go out one by one going home; almost a half of people went out, I don't know how they knew that HABYARIMANA's plane was shot. I stayed there until 11 pm but we continued to hear gunfire outside. My heart started to beat. 
  •  We went out at the end of the match, it was Ivory Coast and Ghana I think, I don't know. All I remember it was between two African countries. I went home; on my way going home everything was completely calm till I reached home. I reached home and slept but still my family was not aware of what happened. Other people in the residences knew what happened except us who were watching the soccer match. 
  •  I slept, around 5:30 am my big brother came to wake me up and he said to me: "HABYARIMANA is dead." I said to him: "You are lying, can HABYARIMANA die?" he said to me: "I heard it on the news around 5 am." They were saying that the father of Rwanda has died. I thought it was impossible for him to die. He said to me: "I am telling you the truth, lets go in my room and wait for 6 am news, they will talk about it." I did not agree with myself that we are going to die. 
  •  If I go back in the history, as there were a lot of political parties and the Interahamwe militia did not cause us problems because we knew how to handle them. What I mean here is that the youth from MDR Party, the youth from PCD Party and the ones from PL Party were aimed at working together. Sometimes the Interahamwe would attack us; we fight them and defeat them because we were working as a team of young men that grown up together in the same neighborhoods. We had no problem between each other, so the problem came when their parents told them that a Tutsi is a bad person. When HABYARIMANA died new rules were set. I never thought these people were bad. 
  •  Problems started to appear in those political parties where the Interahamwe who normally used to be in Kiyove realized that they cannot defeat us so they sent to us other trained Interahamwe from Gabiro called Inyange. They used to come and we fight with them. Once, we fought with them, as we were a team made of young men from different political parties, we always won them. We once ran after those Interahamwe called Inyange who had grenades and many other things, we ran after them up to Sopetrad. They ran away 'cause they saw how tough we were. 
  •  If I come back to the point I was on, about HABYARIMANA's death. I thought the same team contribution is unbreakable and nothing will happen to us. Few minutes after his death, right in the morning while we were commenting on what is going to happen after, thinking that everything is going to be settled. I saw a white Pajero jeep driven by presidential guards, this jeep came and found us where we were standing and ask us: "Who are you?" One boy, unfortunately he died, he said to them: "We are citizens in this Rugenge sector." They said no, we want to know you ethnics. He did not know what was going on, he said to them: "We are Tutsis." You are Tutsis and you dare stand there. There did not add any other word, they went. I will come back to this white Pajero jeep 'cause they are the ones who distributed guns in residences. 
  •  I realized that things were getting far, I called all friends and what I can tell you is that 95 percent of them lost their lives or almost 98 percent died which means only 2 per cent were left. I called them and we made a meeting, we said: "We are a youth that is ready to fight, although we are calling others to come and join us and they refuse, lets not be discouraged because of it." 
  •  There came a man named Biregeya who was the chief of our residence and said to us: "The new rules emphasize that there should be a road block each hundred meters." It was 7th [April 1994], we made up our own barrier. Around 1 pm we heard that a young man called Gasongo was cut off the head. We went to see Gasongo and his family, when we reached there we found our friends holding guns so we got scared. The heart started to beat thinking we are next. We returned to the road block of ours. 
  •  A few minutes after, two young Interahamwe came behind us after stealing radios and several things in houses. We were still feeling strong and we stopped them and took everything they had on them. We said to them: "What are you doing?" they said to us: "You will see what we are doing in a short time, just give us our radios." We said no. They stole these radios from journalists; one of them was called Majabo. He worked at the Radio Rwanda, we saw them coming out of these journalists' house because it was just two hundred meters from where we were standing. We took back the two radios, Majabo lived with two other journalists called Boniface and Murutampunzi but they now live in Europe. When we came back, our road block was already destroyed and they brought new guns of different type. That was the last time I saw my friends, by the time we saw those guns we ran separate ways. We went to hide ourselves. 
  •  We hid; I first hid myself at a neighbor who allowed me to hide in the ceiling of his house. There was a man called Nsababera Eraste, he left these neighbor's place when he was still young and come to work at our home for a longtime. When he became old, my mother got him a small plot in which she enabled him to build a small house and later on he got married. 
  •  During conflicts between political parties, he used to say to my mother: "Old woman, we will kill you." My mother also replied to him: "You stupid! Do you think you can kill us … who do you think you are?" My mother used to call him Kajevuba[meaning premature] because he was born before the right time hence came the name. Before memorizing his name, my mother used to call him Kajevuba. She said to him: "Kajevuba do you think you can kill us, you killing us?" "I am sure you won't do anything to us:" she said. Kajevuba finally knew where I was hiding and he was dying to kill someone. He wanted to kill, but he could always remember all the good things that my mother did to him and felt discouraged. 
  •  John Peter saw me running. He saw me running out of a big whole and I was part of the people that he was sent to kill. I ran into a banana field, within the banana field I saw a place with lots of grasses and I hid myself in there. The problem was I could get grasses to cover my legs; I only covered my upper body. John Peter showed others where I ran to and they quickly came after me. They entered inside the banana field and cut all of it down, just searching me. They came and stood in two meters from where I was. There was a wall up to Ste Famille that I could not cross it so they knew I was around. My legs were still out 'cause I could not find grasses to cover them. 
  •  They came close to a rubbish bin that they saw around, there was someone inside it who covered himself with grasses and rubbish. They took him out and said to him: "You old man, what are you hiding for?" I heard them because I was in three or four meters from where they were standing. The old man said to them: "I am scared!" A man called Modest said to him: "give us money, we will let you go we don't want old people." This old man had only seven hundred Rwandan francs on him. 
  •  They continued to search for others, but in the meantime I have already sent my prayers to God because I felt it was my last moments. They cut bananas that were closer to me, God always does miraculous things, these bananas fell down and covered my legs. Finally they went away but I heard them whispering where did this cockroach pass, where is this cockroach? "John Peter just told us that he passed here, where is he?" they said. 
  •  What if he is still in that rubbish bin may be the old man was on top of him. Although I was listening to what they were whispering, they came back to the rubbish bin and I felt scared. They did nothing special except passing around the rubbish bin and went back after. When they went, I first regain my sense 'cause I was extremely scared. 
  •  They went around midday passed twenty five minutes, I slept there and I woke up at 4 pm. I woke up feeling like a fool, I woke up wondering what was I doing there and I said to myself: "Am I dreaming?" I regained my conscience slowly by slowly. I spent almost five minutes wondering what was I doing in there. Everything, bananas and grasses were still on top of me. I stood up and walked out of there. 
  •  Lots of people lost their lives inside Saint Paul. I found a boy called Gasindi discussing with other people. They were talking about the people who lost their lives and the ones that were taken away. Emmanuel was shot and ran towards cella. Emmanuel was a teacher at Joc high school. 
  •  I stood behind Gasindi, he did not know I was behind him and there were fifteen people there. They did not know I was there. I heard him saying it is so sad Masengo was killed. It was due to time I spent in bush sleeping after they left. I heard him saying, now Masengo is dead and yesterday I saw his mother dead. I made a step and asked him: "Did my mother die?" He turned and realized it was me. He said to me: "You mother was killed!" "Did my mother get killed?" I ask him again. He said to me: "She got killed." She was killed in the carcuters I did not care much about that. I searching for him in the morning and ask him the death of my mother. 
  •  My mother was horribly killed; she was taken from the carcuters and got shot at the gate. She was shot by someone called Nkeshimana but she did not die straight away. She was shot around 10 am in the head and continued to bleed. In the afternoon around 3 pm, someone else called Trake passed at the carcuters and found her still breathing a little bit and finished her. She spent a day and a half in front of that gate. 
  •  After that time the carcuters came, dug a deep hole and buried her. The same hole I took her out to be buried at the Kigali memorial center. I just told you in brief how my mother was killed because Gasindi was still telling me about the death of my mother. 
  •  We stayed at Saint Paul. Celestin a priest called everyone known as lieutenant. He took us to his place and said to us: "You are a problem in here." He said to us again: "You [Masengo], Anserme and Dominique try to find away to get out of here, I promise you to find a safe way out." We said to him: "Where do you want us to go?" 
  •  The Interahamwe promised us to not take other refuges if they catch you. I explained to him saying that some old women said that he is the one behind this. We are not even soldiers, it is just we try to fight for our lives but none of us went for a military training even the ones who got killed. 
  •  We left the priest's place. Two days later I remember it was on 14th [June 1994], that day was the worst day of my life. They took around 70 young men; we counted them after everyone started to talk about those we knew among them. This time they came really serious, and searching each and every corner. 
  •  The thing is when it is not your turn to die, then nothing happens to you. None of them did guess where we, I, Anselme and Dominique, used to hide. From where we hid, we continued to watch them what they were doing. They were tiring two by two using a shirt. I remember one of them; this young man wrote on his high school diploma these words "I forgive my killers." He gave it to his mother, his mother lives now in a place called Kabasengerezi and she has it. He wrote on his diploma those words before he left. 
  •  That time they took a large number of young men among which, Muyoboke Bosco, another one called Hategekimana also known as Nyarisaza, including Gasindi, another one called Twaha and another one called Mutarambirwa. Among those seventy people was included an old man called Murasadonyi who was one of the few old people that were taken. They were taken to be killed inside a man called Yaremye's big building located in Kiyovu residence. They were buried inside that building. It was on 14th, the same day Kameya got killed. He was brought from Kinyamateka to be killed. 
  •  They were proud of having killed Kameya saying that is now the turn for Lieutenants inside Saint Paul. "We hope to catch them:" they said. We were the ones called Lieutenants. Early in morning on 15th because of a large number of people who lost their lives, it was said that a lot of them came from Saint Paul. It was even announced on the radio. The united nations peace keepers [MINUAR] came and had a small meeting with us. They said: "Don't worry, write down your names we will pick you up tomorrow." 
  •  The next day on the 16th they did not come. In the night, we left Saint Paul 'cause we were told that we cause problems other refuges and we felt unsecured. We wanted to go to Gisozi hoping the lucky person will get there. 
  •  We told the priest, he packed for us bread and gave us a guard to escort us. He said to us: "He will go with you and will keep on informing you the location of barriers 'cause he lives in Gisozi so he is used to cross those barriers." We left around 10 pm, when we reached in the small forest close to Saint Paul, we heard some people behind and they started to shoot on us. We ran back to where we came from. Before we went separate ways, Dominque said to me: "Do you know what, lets go back and we will leave the place tomorrow if the Inkotanyi do not come to rescue us, I have hope they will come to rescue." 
  •  That is what happened, we went in separate places in order to sleep as we knew none of the Interahamwe would attack in the night, they always attacked day time but we continued to hear gunfire increasing. Within the gunfire I heard people coming and they said: "Masengo it's us Inkoyanyi." They were calling Masengo, Tunga and Kariyopi, the reason those Inkotanyi knew our names is because they are some people whom we were together in Saint Paul and were got rescued by the UN peace keepers [MINUAR], so those people told those Inkotanyi about us. Among those people was one called Ndengeyingoma and another one called Musafiri, so those Inkotanyi came to rescue us. 
  •  They came saying, Masengo it's us Inkotanyi don't worry; come out of where you are. I thought it was Interahamwe trying to fool us so that they can take us. I tried to leave the place in order to hide in a nice place because I was feeling unsafe. I left the place around 2 am and while I was going out I heard them talking, but there was still a lot of gunfire outside. It was an exchange of gunfire between Inkotanyi and Interahamwe. 
  •  I went down slowly and hid myself in a bush, I saw Ndengeyingoma in front of those soldiers calling me. I carefully looked at them, because I knew how Inkotanyi looked like. They were some of them I knew at CND and others I knew from military course I took. I came out of the bush and said to them: "I am Masengo, I am here!" Ndengeyingoma said to me: "We are Inkotanyi and we came to rescue you." He told me to call others, I went back in the building to call them and the ones in the house said to me: "You want us to get killed." 
  •  It has been a good while they did not see me; I usually came in the night. I said to them: "I cannot lie to you; you know I am the one with the problem so they are Inkotanyi." They said to me: "You want us to get killed." I said no, they are Inkotanyi. Few young men went out and found it was them, so they came back to confirm that it was Inkotanyi. Some of them refused to come, we were about 1700 people and 30 of them remained there. They [Inkotanyi] told us to sit on the ground and they said to us: "Go down this way." They showed us the way and we knew that road. 
  •  We went down till we reached the first road in Rugenge, we continued up the second one until we reached the third one known as the heavy weight road [Poid Lourd]. We passed through the swamp, heading to Kacyiru by the time we reached Kacyiru it was already in the morning and the soldiers were few around thirty soldiers. The ones who managed to reach Kacyiru continued but other camped there. The soldiers tried to find them places to stay in and they went back to fight with Interahamwe. 
  •  They fought the whole day to protect the people they rescued. Other soldiers [Inkotanyi] joined them in order to give them a hand, in the afternoon that is when the remaining group managed to cross. On the way going, some people like the wife of Manyenzi, another girl lost their lives due to the shooting; some were caught by the bullets because we were a long chain of people. We went and reached Gisozi, We were welcomed. 
  •  If I go back a little bit, the 30 people who stayed at Saint Paul saying that it was Interahamwe trying to fool us were killed almost all of them. One man called Ally was one of the few people that survived the Interahamwe attack. He doesn't know how he survived all he remembers is that he slept down and they started to kill people. 
  •  So for us we reached Gisozi. The young men became soldiers and the old women and others were taken to Kabuga. I was one of the young adults that became soldiers. The war [Genocide] came to an end. We did not stay longer as soldiers; some were still young so want to return to school. The main purpose was to quit the army because we felt kind of traumatized when remembering that someone had a family of ten people now he is left alone. 
  •  We applied to leave the army and some were allowed. We went on and started new hard lives where there is no father, no mother only you alone. We found the houses already destroyed. It was very hard the first days; there was no food we had to search for it if not try to find a place where to sleep also visit friends. That is the kind of life I lived in. 
  •  I tried to search if there is any one of my family who is still alive unfortunately all of them died except one girl called Chantal who was out of the country. She was out of Rwanda during the war time. I knew about the death of everyone, my siblings, my mother and I accepted what happened. About the other school I applied for, I was not able to go for it because I felt unhealthy, very weak, I felt I was not able to add two numbers. I wondered why do I have to go to school, will it resurrect my mother so I felt it was useless. A lot of people begged me to go back to school as I was still young. I said to them: "I saw where intellectual people went, even the PHD holder died!" 
  •  I stayed in that miserable life. Sometimes God remembers someone. I and the other sister of mine whom I told you, tried to rebuild our home house in order to have where to stay. In our financial weakness we managed to get small jobs. We worked in O.I.M and the small salary we could get out of it, we would use it to buy cement or other good people would buy for us cement. We finally completed the house. It was a big problem to have where to live; it was hard for us to stay in several places, spending the whole year changing houses to live in when sometimes the people in there are financially unstable. The ones who are financially stable are mostly bad people. Our houses were destroyed and their too. So asking for help when they also have such problem, we preferred to let it go. 
  •  After completing the house, my sister got married and I stayed with the housekeeper. As time passed by I had this idea to go back to school and I finally went to school at ULK University. I have finished the second year and I am going for the third year. 
  •  It doesn't mean that the life of genocide survivors is easy; we are not treated the way we should be treated. We always hear someone is dead, a genocide survivor, and another day you hear a criminal was released. That is the way we live, a criminal was released and a genocide survivor was killed. 
  •  You hear it on the radios. In this country the security of Genocide survivors is insufficient. We cannot forget that we have to live and we are aimed at living but what these men did for us, it is not that hard for us to do it too but we were not created for that. I realized it is even hard for me to kill a rabbit or a chicken. Imagine you take an innocent baby and hit the baby on the wall or remove an old woman all clothes and rape her. You ask yourself if this person was created as you were created and you cannot get an answer. 
  •  Another thing that hurts me, you find a person really confessing proudly of the a hundred people he killed, the horrible way in which he killed those innocent people, and the next day he is realized because of that. You find the government is spending a lot on him while there are old women let's say in Gisozi who have nothing to eat, no where to live. This should be taken care of, the government should think about this. 
  •  Okay for us we are still young men, they should care about weak people, wounded people, raped people and old women so they could die happily because the ones who betrayed us die happily. They came back and were given their properties. Got back their money from the bank got back their houses. It is sad to see someone who destroyed your house living in a very nice house of his father. We don't want those nice houses, the government should build for Genocide survivors houses to live in. it is our right, when he is given back his properties he lives nicely than us. If this is not changed so the government won't be helping us. 
  •  Here is what I want; all people who hurt us should be punished. If not I don't see where this unity and reconciliation will come from. There is this thing of asking forgiveness between each other and I find it bad. What are we going to ask forgiveness for? It is because they killed us! I hear some leaders insisting that we should say sorry as if is there any fault we committed. 
  •  You hear them saying that they are going to give us indemnity because we do need it. Let me tell you that there is no indemnity that can replace a human. It should not even be called indemnity; it should be called compensation or another name.They should find a way so the old men and women, and those wounded people could live. They should maintain the security of Genocide survivors. It is sad people are killed in the day time, this happened in Kabuga. In Kaduha, it is also the same. You hear a person was sent to prison, but during the visiting days they take for him meat, tea, and other nice things. You find that he struggles only from Monday to Thursday, but he lives nicely on Friday like the way he lived while he is outside. 
  •  You find that they have already forgotten our people. They say that the Genocide came to an end but you find it is still there, so we don't understand. Among our leaders there are some who committed crimes during Genocide. I think we have enough intellectuals; they should remove those bad people and promote others who were not involved in the killings, the innocent ones. 
  •  It is sad when you know that someone used to killed people, I was always hurt whenever I could see Munyakazi getting promoted in army ranks when he never stopped to come and take people from Saint Paul and Ste Famille. Okay it's good now he was sent to prison but there are other people like him. They should stop them to work because as they get the kind of jobs they try to hide necessary information. 
  •  Let's say if I was a colonel, I would just go and tell someone to leave me alone and to not say anything. They intimidate officials like the ones in the court and they give them respect because of who they are. Those courts respect them for who they are and they cannot step forward and arrest them but even though it was an ordinary citizen…they will get killed as well. They should also take them as ordinary citizen and get arrested. The funny thing is that in court they call them "Your Honor" during the time of judgment, how can you judge a man you have already respected that way. 
  •  If it happens to be a citizen like Masengo, when I arrive in the court they will come straight to the point. They will start to say the crimes I committed and "Your Honor" will be put aside. In brief, this is my testimony and I thank you. 
  •  Aegis: Thank you too; there is someone who said they call you Nsababera, or Nsababera Eraste. Your mother built for him a house; did you find him after Genocide? 
Table of Contents 
  •  Pre-Genocide Experience
  •  Family 
  •  Education 
  •  Death of Habyarimana Juvenal 
  •  Genocide Experience
  •  Events in Rugenge 
  •  Death of Mother 
  •  Events at Saint Paul 
  •  Interaction with Inkotanyi 
  •  Post-Genocide Experience
  •  Fate of Family Members 
  •  Reflections on Justice 
  •  Reflections on Reconciliation 

Title: A testimony of Gilbert Masengo Rutayisire
Description:Gilbert Masengo Rutayisire shares his story before, during, and after the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi. He survived at Nyarugenge District. The testimony is given in Kinyarwanda. English translation and subtitles are available.
Source:Genocide Archive of Rwanda
Media format:mini-DV tape
Time period:Rwanda 1973 (5 July) - 1994 (6 April)
Repository:Genocide Archive of Rwanda

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