Contradictory Behavior During Genocides

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/rga/index.php?action=ajax&rs=GDMgetPage&rsargs[]=Contradictory Behavior During Genocide. Campbell, B-2010.pdf&rsargs[]=0
SociologicalForum,Vol.25,No.2,June2010DOI:10.1111/j.1573-7861.2010.01177.xInalllarge-scalegenocides,rescuingoccursalongsidekilling.Somemembersoftheaggressorsethnicgroupevenrisktheirownlivestosavemembersofthetargetedgroup.Killingandrescuingoccurcloselytogether,andeventhesamepersonsmayengageinbothbehaviorskillingononeoccasionandrescuingonanother.Thisarticleexaminessuchcaseswherethesameindividualskillandrescueanddiscussestheirrelevancetotheexplanationofgenocide.Bothcollectivisticandindividualistictheoriesofkillingandrescuingexplainthesebehaviorswiththepropertiesofgroupsorpersonsareinadequateinaccountingforthosewhodoboth.UsingDonaldBlacks(1995,2000)strategyofpuresociologyandmytheoryofgenocide(Campbell,2009),Iofferanexplanationofcontradictorybehaviorbyindividualsduringgenocide.Thebehaviorsthemselvesoccurindifferentstructureskillingwherethereissocialdistanceandrescuingwherethereissocialcloseness.Individualswhoexhibitcontradictorybehaviorthuskillthosewhoaredistantandsavethosewhoareclose.Onefeatureofthisanalysisisitsdemonstrationoftheexplanatorypowerofpuresociology,whichisuniquelycapableofexplainingextremevariationsinindividualbehavior.KEYWORDS:altruism;genocide;globalconflict;puresociology;socialstructure;violence.INTRODUCTIONOnApril6,1994,aplanecarryingthepresidentofRwandawasshotdownasitreturnedfromTanzania.Theassassinsidentitiesareunknown(Prunier,1995:213229),butthewidespreadbeliefamongHutusthedominantRwandanethnicgroup,towhichthepresidentalsobelongedwasthatTutsirebelswereresponsibleforthepresidentsdeath(Straus,2004:254256).Theresponsewasoneofthelargestgenocidesinhistory.Duringthethreemonthsfollowingtheassassination,Hutupoliticalandmilitaryelitesorganizedthekillingofaboutthree-fourthsoftheTutsipopulationinRwanda(DesForges,1999:16).ManyofthekillerswereordinaryHutucivilianswhojoinedthemilitiasafterthekillingbegan.Still,anumberofHutusengagedinaltruisticactsof1EarlierversionsofthisarticlewerepresentedattheannualmeetingsoftheSouthernSociologicalSociety,NewOrleans,April3,2009andtheAmericanSociologicalAssociation,SanFrancisco,August8,2009.IthankDonaldBlack,JasonManning,JustinSnyder,andtheanonymousreviewersforcommentsonearlierdrafts.2DepartmentofSociology,CaliforniaStateUniversity,LosAngeles,5151StateUniversityDrive,LosAngeles,California90032;e-mail:bcampbe3@calstatela.edu.296Ó2010EasternSociologicalSocietywhich
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